4-4 Removal and Replacement Preliminaries
4.4.2 Workstation Precautions
Use the following grounding precautions at workstations:
■ Cover the workstation with approved static-dissipative material (refer to Table 4-2
later in this chapter).
■ Use a wrist strap connected to a properly grounded work surface and use properly
grounded tools and equipment.
■ Use field service tools, such as cutters, screwdrivers, and vacuums that are
■ When using fixtures that must directly contact dissipative surfaces, use fixtures
made of static-safe materials only.
■ Keep work area free of nonconductive materials such as ordinary plastic assembly
aids and styrofoam.
■ Handle electrostatic-sensitive components, parts, and assemblies by the case or
PCM laminate. Handle them only at static-free workstations.
■ Avoid contact with pins, leads, or circuitry.
■ Turn off power and input signals before inserting or removing connectors or test
4.4.3 Grounding Equipment and Methods
Grounding equipment must include either a wrist strap or a foot strap at a grounded
■ When seated, wear a wrist strap connected to a grounded system. Wrist straps are
flexible straps with a minimum of one megohm ±10% resistance in the ground
cords. To provide proper ground, a strap must be worn snug against the skin. On
grounded mats with banana-plug connectors, connect a wrist strap with alligator
■ When standing, use foot straps and a grounded floor mat. Foot straps (heel, toe, or
boot straps) can be used at standing workstations and are compatible with most
types of shoes or boots. On conductive floors or dissipative floor mats, use them on
both feet with a minimum of one-megohm resistance between the operator and
ground. To be effective, the conductive strips must be worn in contact with the skin.